“Deuterium sa Pilipinas: Ang Sagot sa Kahirapan!”

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Mahigit dalawampung taon na ang nakararaan, isang Doktora Nona Calo mula sa lungsod ng Butuan sa Mindanao ay nagpalagay na merong napakalaking deposito ng “deuterium” na matatagpuan sa dagat ng Pilipinas, sa may karagatan ng Surigao. Unang natuklasan ito at pinag-aralan noong 1932 ng isang Amerikanong Chemist na si Harold Urey, ang deuterium o “heavy water” ay magkasanib na dalawang isotopes ng hydrogen at oxygen atom na may chemical formula ng D20 o H30. Kapag mas marami ang hydrogen molecules kaysa ordinaryong tubig, ito’y mas mabigat kaysa tubig at maging sa tubig alat kaya ito ay natural na bumababa sa kailaliman ng dagat.

Ayon kay Anthony B. Halog (PhD, MBA), na nagtatrabaho sa Sustainable Technology Office ng Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council sa Ottawa, Canada, “Ang Philippine trench, ang pinakamalaki sa buong mundo ay may 868 milya ang haba, 52 milya ang luwag sa pinakamalapad na bahagi at 2 milya ang lalim sa pinakamalalim na bahagi kung saan ito ay 10.057 kilometro below sea level. Ang Deuterium ay makukuha mula sa lalim na ito na mahigit 7 kilometro below sea level sa ilalim ng 10,000 psi of ocean pressure, na pinapalitan ng kalikasan sa loob ng 24 oras sa isang araw mula sa Central America patawid sa malawak na Pacific Ocean. Ang kamangha-manghang bagay tungkol sa deuterium ay ito; na kung nasa room temperature o normal atmospheric pressure, ang deuterium atoms ay nae-electrolyzed na natural mula sa tubig na naglalabas ng hydrogen gas. Ang natural na napakapambihirang prosesong ito ay hindi nangangailangan ng magastos na electric power consuming electrolysis para artipisyal na maihiwalay ang hydrogen mula sa oxygen sa ordinaryong tubig . Sa kasalukuyan, ang deuterium ay ginagamit sa produksyon ng hydrogen (Li-Hy) fuel na ginagamit na ngayon sa Canada, Amerika, Alemanya at sa iba pang mga parte ng Sweden upang magbigay ng fuel para sa mga kotse, trak, jet planes, kasama na ang solid hydrogen para sa mga spacecrafts Challenger at Columbia”.

Bagama’t ang pagmimina ng deuterium ay hindi pa nagagawa, kahit ng mga highy developed first world countries at ang posibleng halaga nito ay lubhang nakakalula, ang pagsasaliksik sa oportunidad na ito ay worth it pa rin na paglaanan. Ang programang ito ay maaaring maglunsad sa Pilipinas bilang pinakamalaking hydrogen fuel (Li-Hy) producer sa mundo, at maging tanging fuel producer sa loob ng 40 hanggang 50 taon mula ngayon sa isang ekonomiyang mundong naubusan na ng langis. Gamit ang expertise ng Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) sa pamamagitan ng isa nitong departamento na nakatuon sa indigenous at non-traditional sources, ang gobyerno ay maaaring magproyekto ng deuterium research program at hydrogen (Li-Hy) production project ng may kaluwagan kung project organization at administration ang pag-uusapan.

Hindi porke’t hindi pa ito nagagawa dati, hindi ibig sabihin na hindi na ito makakayang gawin. Ang pagmimina ng Deuterium ay tulad lang ng praktikal na pag-pump ng tubig mula sa ilalim ng dagat. Ang pangkasalukuyang teknolohiya sa offshore na produksyon ng langis ay hanggang sa lalim na 6.4 kilometro lamang mula sa sea level, at kailangan pa nilang humukay sa ilalim ng dagat para marating ang langis, daan-daang metro below sea floor. Ang Deuterium na elementong pakay, ay nasa lokasyon sa pagitan ng 7 hanggang 10 kilometro mula sa ibabaw ng dagat at hindi na nangangailangan ng karagdagan pang paghuhukay. At dahil ang deuterium ay natural na nage-electrolyze kapag ang 10,000 psi ocean pressure ay dahan-dahang inalis sa pamamagitan ng pumping process at pinalitan ng lower atmospheric pressure, ang dalawang upper pipes ay kokolekta ng hiniwalay na by-products ng deuterium na purong tubig at gas na hydrogen. Ang pipeline nito mismo ay magsisilbing refinery ng deuterium para makagawa ng hydrogen. Ang pagmimina ng langis ay maaaring mas matrabaho, mas mahal at mas mapanganib kumpara sa pagmimina ng deuterium, at ang pagpupuro ng langis ay mas mahal kaysa sa prosesong sangkot sa deuterium at LiHy production. Kung sa expertise ang pag-uusapan, napatunayan na ng mga Pilipinong inhinyero at mga technicians sa PNOC ang kanilang kahusayan at nag-export pa ng kanilang kakayanan sa Japan sa paggawa ng geothermal plants, kung saan ang instalasyon nito ay may kumplikado at mapanganib kung ikukumpara.

Ang tidal conditions sa kahabaan ng Philippine Trench ay kailangang isama sa pagsasaliksik at pag-aaral buong isang taon. Ang Petroleum production sa North Sea, na matatagpuan sa pagitan ng Isla ng Britanya at Norway, ay patuloy lang ng walang hinto sa kabila ng perennial disturbances sa tubig at marahas na climactic condition sa lugar mula sa mayelong lamig at ordinaryong malamig na temperatura. Ang Pacific climate at condition ay katamtaman kung may pagkukumpara. Ang bilang ng mga oil rigs sa North Sea ay mga 170 hanggang sa 200 milya mula sa pinakamalapit na daungan, kumpara sa posibleng site sa Philippine trench na 100 milya lamang mula sa Lungsod ng Surigao at 120 miya mula sa Lungsod ng Tacloban. Kung ang mga trabahador sa North Sea oil rigs ay kailangang magtrabaho ng tig-kalahating oras ng trabaho (dalawang linggong trabaho; dalwang linggong pahinga) sa buong taon dahil sa extreme at mapanganib na kundisyon ng pagtra-trabaho sa lugar, ang pagta-trabaho sa deuterium rigs sa Pacific ay parang nagbabakasyon lang sa isang isla ng Hawaii.

Ang mga Oil rig platform manufacturers sa Singapore ay maaaring magbuo ng mga espesyal na disenyong platforms sa halagang $100-150 milyong dolyar o humigit-kumulang ay P5-7.5 bilyong piso. Sa total cost na P10 bilyong piso para sa research at paggawa ng single floating deuterium rig na may average na kapasidad na produksyon na 50,000 barrels isang araw, ang gobyerno ay makaasa ng konserbatibong arawang kita na 4 milyong dolyar o 1.28 milyong dolyar kada taon o 54 bilyong piso annually. Kung ang gobyerno ay ay gagawa ng isang deuterium rig taon-taon, kumikita ng 1.28 milyong dolya, ang utang sa World Bank ay mababayaran sa loob ng hindi hihigit sa 15 taon. Ang budget para rito ay kaya naman ng gobyerno natin. Kung kinaya ng gobyerno ang 40 bilyong piso ng Pangulo na pork barrel noong 2006 para sa iba’t-ibang programa para maiangat ang kalagayan ng mga mahihirap, kaya ng gobyerno natin na magtayo ng isang deuterium rig taon-taon na may isang daang balik na kita.

Ayon sa estimates, meron lamang 1,000 bilyong barrels ng reserve petroleum na natitira sa mundo ngayon. Dahil sa gumagamit ng 28.6 bilyong bariles ng langis kada taon, lahat ng mga nakareserbang langis ay maauubos 35 taon mula ngayon. Ang mga pangangailangang enerhiya ng mundo sa gayon ay malilipat sa natural gas na mayroon tayong 3,457 trilyong cubic feet na reserba. Pero ang partikular na source na ito ay maaari ring maubos. Ang Hydrogen na may masagana at unlimited source sa deuterium ang siyang magiging reserbang enerhiya sa hinaharap. Kung magagamit lamang ng Pilipinas ang energy source na ito, maaari tayong magkaroon ng mas magandang kinabukasan at ekonomiya higit sa lahat sa mundo, kasama na ang United States of America. Kung tayo, bilang isang nasyon, ay maabot ang puntong ito sa ksaysayan, ang Pilipinas kung gayon ay maaaring isalarawan bilang ang alamat na lupang pangako….lupang inaapawan ng gatas at pulot pukyutan.

Ang Estados Unidos ay minsang nangarap na magpadala ng tao sa buwan. Ngayon ito’y bahagi na ng kasaysayan. Ang ginawa niya para masundan ang pangarap na iyon ang nagbigay sa kanya ng katanyagan bilang pinaka-technologically advanced at economically prosperous nation. Maaari itong mangyari sa Pilipinas.

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A new owl species was found in Lombok,

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A new owl species was found in Lombok, Indonesia and has been formally described by scientists.

 Otus jolande or the Rinjani Scops owl was discovered by two separate researchers in two different dates.

 The common owl is the first endemic bird species recorded on the Indonesian island of Lombok. George Sangster a lead researcher of the Department of Zoology from Stockholm University in Stockholm, Sweden said in an interview that he found the new owl species days apart from the day the researcher Ben King found it independently at a different location in Indonesia. “I found the new owl on the third of September while Ben King found it independently at a different location on the 7th of September. I was on Lombok to collect sound recordings of the local population of a species of nightjar. On the first night I arrived on Lombok, we heard the vocalizations of an owl that [I was] not familiar with.” The researcher Ben King, from the Ornithology department of American Museum of Natural History of New York, USA was coincidentally in Lombok at the same time, recording the same nightjar species even though the researchers had never met. Mr. King commented, “My experience was similar to George’s. While I was tape-recording the nightjar, I heard a song that sounded like an owl, but unlike any I would heard in years of field work in Indonesia.” Initially, Mr. Sangster was not certain whether it was a previously known species from Java and Bali that for some reason had been overlooked on Lombok. This explanation was quickly ruled out when he played back the sound recordings of the owl. “When we first heard them, the owls were very vocal, and either involved in a duet (of male and female) or a duel (between two males). Because we were not sure which species this was, we made recordings and played it back. Owls are territorial, so when their sound is played back in their territory, the owl usually comes to investigate the ‘intruder’.” The owls strongly responded to the recordings and approached the researchers, meaning the researchers had a clear view of the owls. This meant that the vocalizations were indeed the song, a crucial piece of information according to two researchers.

 The researchers only realized that they had in fact discovered a new species when they checked the taxonomic literature and examined their recordings more closely.

The new owl species Rinjani Scops at first looks very similar to Moluccan Scops owl species. The Moluccan Scops owl is a species of owl that was reported to occur in Lombok, Indonesia. Previously no endemic species of birds from the island of Lombok were known. To verify their findings the scientists studied plumage differences in museums, took measurements of various body parts and analyzed the songs. They used playback in the field to determine which species are present on Lombok and Sumbawa, before using DNA data to compare all relevant species.

 Further findings on the Rinjani Scops owl species:

 According to the first person to have discovered the Rinjani Scops, Mr George Sangster explained that there may be further undiscovered bird species in Indonesia. “Several species have already been announced in the scientific literature but await formal description. There are probably several other species of Scops owls in Indonesia that remain overlooked, even if they are already named. Until recently, many species of owls were included as ‘subspecies’ of highly variable, widespread species. Step-by-step, we are learning that this is not always correct, and that some of those are better considered as species.” George Sangster was most surprised to have discovered that the new species was so common. “In the past, ornithologists and birdwatchers have largely ignored the island because, unlike Java, Bali, Flores and other islands in the region, no bird species were unique to it,” he told BBC Nature. Our study underscores that even after 150 years of scientific study we still do not know all birds in the Indo-Malayan region. In fact, Indonesia is a treasure trove for taxonomists.” He stated. The two researchers, Sangster and King, found the owls at several locations and often heard multiple individuals calling from different directions. He suggested how this discovery can have long-reaching implications for study.

Meteor hits Russia a day after Valentine’s Day

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One of the most popular jokes was that the meteorite was supposed to fall on December 21 last year, where many believed the Mayan calendar predicted the end of the world, but was delivered late by Russia’s notoriously inefficient postal service. Friday, the day after the feast of Saint Valentine’s, a meteor made headlines all over the world when it streaked across the sky and exploded over Russia’s Ural Mountains with the power of an atomic bomb. Like a major scene in a blockbuster film, the day was a spectacle with the sight of raining fireballs over a wide area and causing a shock wave that broke windows, tampered buildings and injured more than 1,000 people.

 Meteoroids are tiny pieces of space debris, usually parts of asteroids or comets that are on a collision course with the planet Earth. They become meteors when they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Most meteors burn up in the atmosphere, but if they survive the frictional heating and strike the surface of the Earth they are then termed as meteorites.

 The spectacle of fireballs tremendously frightened many people in Russia. Some overly panicked elderly women declaring that the world was coming to an end. People heading to work in Chelyabinsk, city of about 1 million 930 miles east of Moscow, heard what sounded like an explosion, saw a bright light and then felt the shock wave, according to a Reuters correspondent in the industrial city 1,500 km (950 miles) east of Moscow.

 Fortunately, even with the large number of injuries made by the asteroid, no deaths were reported. The Emergencies Ministry said 20,000 rescue and clean-up workers were sent to the region after President Vladimir Putin told Emergencies Minister Vladimir Puchkov to ease the disruption and help the victims. The Interior Ministry said about 1,200 people had been injured, at least 200 of them children, and most from shards of glass.

 From Chelyabinsk, a resident named Sergey Hametov said to The Associated Press by telephone that “There was panic. People had no idea what was happening, we saw a big burst of light, then went outside to see what it was and we heard a really loud, thundering sound.” Another local named Andrei, still from Chelyabinsk said “I was standing at a bus stop, seeing off my girlfriend, then there was a flash and I saw a trail of smoke across the sky and felt a shock wave that smashed windows.”

 The Russian Academy of Sciences stated that the meteor — estimated to be about 10 tons and 49 feet wide — entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a hypersonic speed of at least 33,000 meters per hour (mph) and shattered into pieces about 18-32 miles above the ground. But even small asteroids pack a tremendous punch, explained Andrew Cheng of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory who was also the same person to have led a 2001 to 2002 NASA mission to orbit and land on an asteroid. A 10 meter size object already packs the same energy as of a nuclear bomb according to Cheng.

 Chelyabinsk city authorities urged locals to stay indoors as much as possible and unless they needed to pick up their children from schools and kindergartens. Also, though warnings were made to locals not to approach unidentified objects, others quickly took to the Internet and put what they said were meteorite fragments up for sale. “Selling meteorite that fell on Chelyabinsk!” one hopeful seller, Vladimir, said on a popular Russian auction website. He attached a picture of a black piece of stone that on Friday afternoon was priced at 1,488 rubles ($49.46).

 NASA’s director of planetary science, Jim Green called the back-to-back celestial events an amazing display. “This is indeed very rare and it is historic,” he said on NASA TV. “These fireballs happen about once a day or so, but we just don’t see them because many of them fall over the ocean or in remote areas.”

Kepler-37b: An Exoplanet has been newly discovered

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The smallest “exoplanet” in record is routinely being broken, as astronomers get better and better at finding them.

 

Planets are like newborn mammals. They stay close to their stars/suns and does not look exactly similar to one another. There are the big ones, the medium and the tiny planets. It is often that the tiny ones are the cutest ones. Late last week, a new planet has been discovered and is being gushed around the news as truly adorable for its little size.

 

The scientists over at NASA were very excited over the discovery of a tiny, faraway planet. A planet in which they had never seen any other smaller than it, either inside or outside of our home solar system. Usually the telescopes over at NASA only registers monster sized planets as big as the planet Jupiter. The sighting of this planet took some luck not because the telescope lacked the right amount of sensitivity but because stars twinkle in a brightness of their own (for example our sun whose flares keep its light output form being absolutely constant). Little planets block less light compared to bigger ones, and in the case of this new planet, the dimming is very subtle (over two-tenths of one percent). It has the size of our planet Earth’s moon and celebrates new year every thirteen days as it completes its orbit around a star that is smaller than our sun star. Thomas Barclay, lead author of the papers of the planet’s discovery struggles for the fitting adjective so he just stated that the planet “is absolutely tiny.” This newly discovered planet is named Kepler-37b. Its diameter is about 3,860 kilometers or 2,400 in miles which makes it about ten percent bigger than our planet’s moon. Scientists state that Kepler-37b is too alien and antagonistic to inspire the idea of supporting life it its surface, since in terms of hotness, has similar degrees as of the planet Mercury. With the planet Kepler’s close proximity to its star, any water on the surface will disperse rapidly.

 

The rocky and blistering planet was discovered from a part of NASA’s Kepler Mission. The Kepler Mission explores other solar systems to find comparable planets to the planet Earth  that is under the habitual zones of their stars wherein the possibility of life and water can exist.

 

I think it’s an amazing technological achievement to be able to be able to detect small rocks like this. It means we’re really in the arena where it’s possible to detect all the planets of our Solar System, but around other star ” said Francois Fressin to BBC news who is co-author of the paper based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The scientists say they can report with “a confidence of 99.95 percent” that the little rock planet is actually a planet and not just a mistake they made.

 

Doctor Fressin states “I understand that people could get bored by these successive announcements, but hundreds of thousands of years from now, this will be remembered as the decade where discovery of other worlds of all kinds has been made possible.”

Mars may have once supported life

CNN news photoMars had the capability of supporting life in the past, specifically of microbial life. This finding through the help of the rover Curiosity was announced on March 12.

Conclusions were reached by the scientists after studying the latest observations sourced out with the help of NASA’s Curiosity. It just analyzed the first-ever sample gathered from the Red Planet’s interior of a rock. Last month, February, the rover curiosity drilled 2.5 inches or 6.4 in centimeters into a random rock on a Martian outcrop that the mission scientists have dubbed as “John Klein.” On-board instruments Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) found some of the chemical ingredients that supports life in the collected powder. The chemical ingredients included hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and phosphorus. The compound mixtures also suggested that the area may have contained chemical energy sources for potential Red Planet microbes, the scientists stated. The sample also contains clay minerals, showing that the rock was surrounded by a benign aqueous environment, like a lake with neutral pH, billions of years back.

Curiosity found no evidence that life ever really existed on Mars, but the results suggest that the John Klein site possibly supported microbes billion of years ago, if they evolved or were transported to the Red Planet. It is known even before that water had flowed on the surface of Mars long ago. “But there’s more to habitability than the mere existence of liquid water,” researchers say.

A site must have the right chemical makeup and a potential energy source for microbial life to survive and all of the ingredients were present at John Klein. The instrument SAM can detect complex organics but it has not found anything conclusive as for now, though the rover did find two simple chlorinated organics in a scoop of soil both at John Klein and another site named Rocknest late in 2012. Complicated organics such as amino acids however are not to be found on the sites.

“But such molecules are not necessary for life to thrive. Here on Earth, many microbes do just fine by incorporating inorganic carbon — such as that contained in carbon dioxide — into their metabolic processes. And SAM did detect carbon dioxide in the John Klein sample. That’s what we’re real excited about,” Curiosity chief scientist of John Grotzinger said to reporters on Tuesday. “We have found a habitable environment that is so benign and supportive of life that probably — if this water was around and you had been on the planet, you would have been able to drink it.”

Mars is considerably less hospitable to life now for it is much drier and colder as of present time. Some scientists, however, think that the Red Planet may still be capable of supporting microbial life in protected and damp pockets underneath its surface.

The rover Curiosity has no plans of retiring after this recent discovery. Scientists stress that Curiosity’s mission is driven by discovery, meaning they will shale plans around whatever the rover discovers as it drives around the Martian surface. The team of scientists  for Curiosity is planning to continue search for signs of complex organics and explore other sites. John Klein is not the final destination for the Rover for at some point, Curiosity will turn towards deposits at the base of Mount Sharp. Mount Sharp is the three mile high mountain that rises from the center of Gale Crater.

Neanderthals larger eyes may have caused their extinction

Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals comparison

Neanderthal may have reached demise since they had larger eyes that our species, a study suggests.

They may have been extinct through their eyes for it resulted in their brain devoting to seeing in the long dark nights in Europe with high-level processing at its expense. This ability helped our species, the Homo Sapiens, to adapt by fashioning clothing that is much warmer and to develop bigger social networks. This way, the Homo Sapiens made it through the hostile cold of the ice age in Europe. The study is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B Journal.

The Neanderthals are a closely related species of human that habituated in Europe around 250,000 years ago. The Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens coexisted and interacted for a short time until the demise of the Neanderthals around 28,000 years ago, in part due to an ice age. Researchers studied the idea the Neanderthals’ ancestor traveled away from Africa and then had to adapt to the longer, darker nights and murkier days in Europe. With this, they then evolved with bigger eyes and then a much larger area of processing of visuals on the back of their brains. The humans that stayed behind to habituate in Africa continued to enjoy bright days and so had no need for sudden serious adaptation. Our ancestors, the Homo Sapiens, then evolved their frontal lobes which then associated with higher levels of comprehending and intelligence, right before they spread out around the world.

Eiluned Pearce from Oxford University checked the theory by comparing 32 skulls of Homo Sapiens to 13 skulls of Neanderthals. She found that the Neanderthals’ eye sockets were significantly larger than the Homo Sapiens, with the average 6mm length from top to bottom of the sockets. Pearce said that though it may look like a small amount of difference, it was enough for the Neanderthals use more of their brain to process visuals around them. “Since Neanderthals evolved at higher latitudes, more of the Neanderthal brain would have been dedicated to vision and body control, leaving less brain to deal with other functions like social networking.” Pearce told BBC News. “We infer that Neanderthals had a smaller cognitive part of the brain and this would have limited them, including their ability to form larger groups. If you live in a larger group, you need a larger brain in order to process all those extra relationships,” Professor Chris Stringer, who was also involved in the research, explains.

The ability to adapt and innovate to the ice age was much harder for the Neanderthals since they were more visually focused because of their brain structure. This affected them that then may have contributed to their extinction. Homo Sapiens, according to archaeological evidence, coexisted with the Neanderthals and had needles that they have used to make clothing which kept them much warmer than the warps worn by the Neanderthals. These factors might have given our ancestors a bigger advantage that led to their survival. “Even if you had a small percent better ability to react quickly, to rely on your neighbours to help you survive and to pass on information – all these things together gave the edge to Homo sapiens over Neanderthals, and that may have made a difference to survival,” Professor Stringer said.

Professor Robin Dunbar of Oxford University supervised the study and said that the team wanted to change the stereotypical impression made by people towards the Neanderthals. The emerging research showed that they were not stupid, brutish creatures as Hollywood films would portray them but may have been as intelligent as the Homo Sapiens. “They were very, very smart, but not quite in the same league as Homo sapiens,” he explained. “That difference might have been enough to tip the balance when things were beginning to get tough at the end of the last ice age.”

Animal tested cosmetics now banned in Europe

source:http://www.peta.org.uk/features/new-cosmetics-law/default.aspA complete ban on the sale of cosmetics developed through animal testing, whether in European or non-European countries, has taken effect in the EU.

The United Kingdom had retained stricter animal testing standards than required by the European Union Directive since last year. Lynne Featherstone said in 2012 that the special protection for animals such as dogs, cats and primates would be maintained. Featherstone also stated that a system that is centralized for approving research licenses will still continue. These statements were welcomed by the animal welfare organizations and the research community. But Barney Reed, senior scientific officer for RSPCA, stated that he was concerned that the government was primarily prepared to accept EU regulations which would have allowed smaller cage sizes, the use of less humane killing processes and the watering down of the powers of ethics committees which overlook animal research. “It’s been unfortunate that we’ve had to battle for 18 months to pretty much stand still and maintain the standards that we currently have,” he told BBC news in May, 2012.

Fast forward to this year, March 11- EU now completely bans sale of all animal-tested cosmetics. A complete ban of selling cosmetics that involved animal testing has taken effect in Europe. This ban will apply to new cosmetics and their ingredients sold in all European countries, regardless of which place in the world, may it be from a non-European country, the testing of animals were carried out.

The twenty seven European countries have had the ban on animal testing since the year 2009 but the EU Commission is now asking Europe’s trading partners to follow suit. Animals such as mice and rats are used for more than 50% of all the laboratory animal tests carried out in Europe. Lobbyists of Animal rights said that EU officials have eventually listened to the people. BUAV, an anti-vivisection group and European Coalition to End Animal Experiments or ECEAE stated that they spent more than two decades campaigning on the issue of animal testing and had celebrities such as Morrissey, Sienna Miller and Sir Paul McCartney enlisted to their cause. The two groups congratulated the EU Commission for putting the ban into effect after so many years. BUAV said many countries around the world still test on animals and the group is now working on pressing for a global ban.

Cosmetic firms were allowed to continue testing on animals for more complex human health effects such as toxicity that may lead to serious ailments such as cancer, despite Europe’s 2009 ban. Those types of tests have now come to a ban as well this year. EU Commissions have been working with industries to develop a wider range of alternatives to animal testing. EU Commissions have allocated 238 million euros for the year 2007-2011 for the research. Cosmetic companies, however, are highly concerned that the ban may place Europe at a competitive disadvantage in the global market. “By implementing the ban at this time, the European Union is jeopardizing the industry’s ability to innovate,” said Bertil Heerink, chief of Cosmetic Europe.

Professor Roger Lemon, a medical researcher from the University College London and also the spokesman for the campaign organization Understanding Animal Research, said Europe had the highest welfare standards in the world for animal experimentation. “We applaud the Home Office decision to hold on to those high standards.”